Cell 35

Waldhorn und Trompete - Das Ventil im 19. Jahrhundert Studiensammlung

On long instruments with a narrow mean diameter like the natural trumpet and the natural horn of Bach's time, highly­ accomplished musicians can reach up into the fifth octave, up to the 28th natural note, by applying the correct lip tension and air pressure.

It is possible to expand the original range of the harmonics by using technical devices, such as adding several crooks, by partial occlusion of the bell with the hand ('hand-stopping' with the French horn) or by adding keys to the instrument.
Chromatic notes and therefore a complete scale make it possible for these instruments to be played together with other musical instruments.

Originally the additional crooks were placed above the body of the instrument. But in the late 18th century, they were also placed by hand in the middle of the instrument.
('lnventionshorn' or 'Invention' trumpet).

The valve mechanisms which were developed from 1814 onwards and then patented in 1818 made it possible to gain mechanically access to the built-in crooks (valve instruments).

Introduction cell 35
Natural Trumpet Leopold Mozart (1719 - 1787) Allegro moderato, 2nd movement from the concerto in D major for trumpet and orchestra 1762 Niklas Eklund, trumpet, Drottningholm Barock Ensemble, dir. Nils-Erik Sparf P/C 1996; Naxos 8.553531
Valve Trumpet Johann Nepomuk Hummel (1778 - 1837) Rondo, 3rd movement from the concerto in E flat major for trumpet and orchestra. 1803 Maurice André (valve) trumpet, Franz Liszt Chamber Orchestra, dir. János Rolla P/C 1995; EMI 7243 5 55231 2 9 The same piece as in example 2 is played here on a modern valve trumpet.
Valve Trumpet André Jolivet (1905 - 1974) Giocoso, 3rd movement from the concerto No. 2 for trumpet and orchestra 1954 Wynton Marsalis, trumpet, Philharmonia Orchestra, dir. Esa-Pekka Salonen P 1983-1988/C 1992; SK 44726
Valve Trumpet André Jolivet (1905 - 1974) Giocoso, 3rd movement from the concerto No. 2 for trumpet and orchestra 1954 Wynton Marsalis, trumpet, Philharmonia Orchestra, dir. Esa-Pekka Salonen P 1983-1988/C 1992; SK 44726
Learnin' the Blues Louis Armstron, trumpet (1900 - 1971), Ella Fitzgerald, voice, Oscar Peterson, piano, Herb Ellis, guitar, Ray Brown, bass, Louis Bellson, drums, recording 1957, Los Angeles 1957 P/C 1993; Verve Jazz Masters 1, 519 818-2
Orchestral Horn Michel Corrette (1709 - 1795) Allegro, 3rd movement from XIVe concerto comique 'La Choisy' for horn and strings Ensemble Stradivaria, dir. Daniel Cuiller C/P 1996; Adès 205432
'Inventionshorn' Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756 - 1791) Rondo in E flat major for horn and orchestra, KV 371 1781 Lowell Grear, Inventionshorn, Philharmonia Baroque Orchestra, dir. Nicholas McGegan P/C 1988; HMU 907012
'Inventionshorn' Anton Reicha (1770 - 1836) Allegro scherzando, trio in E flat major, op. 82 c. 1800 P/C 1991 ; HM 953-2 882 980-907 Naturhorn-Connection, Thomas Müller
Valve French Horn Richard Strauss (1864 - 1949) Allegro, 3rd movement from the concerto Nr. 1 in E flat major for horn an orchestra, op. 11 1882/83 Barry Tuckwell, horn, London Symphony Orchestra, dir. István Kertész P 1955 and 1967/C 1999; Decca 460 296-2
Valve French Horn: the Wolf Sergej Prokofiew (1891 - 1953) from Peter and the Wolf, a musical fairy-tale for narrator and orchestra, op. 67 1936 Barbara Sukowa, narrator, The Chamber Orchestra of Europe, dir. Claudio Abbado P/C 1990; Deutsche Grammophon 427 678-2

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